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Kidney Stones

An Expert in management of kidney stones

Dr. Amy Krambeck is an expert at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and Ureteroscopy.  She has performed several thousand stone surgeries. She obtains her own fluoroscopic access for PCNL.  She has experience treating the most complex kidney stones; including those with bilateral staghorn stones, spina bifida, or severe scoliosis. She is also an expert at managing pediatric stones and stones during pregnancy.  Once your surgery is completed, Dr. Krambeck will also continue to follow you to help you reduce your risk of stone recurrence.


Everyone's story is unique and Dr. Krambeck is eager to provide her expertise on how she can help you.

What Are Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones (also called nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis or calculi) are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside your kidney. They may affect any part of your urinary tract system. 

If the kidney stone moves or blocks part of the urinary tract system, it can cause severe pain. Most kidney stones will naturally pass from the body without surgery. But if you feel constant pain, cannot pass urine, or get an infection, you may need help to remove the kidney stone.

Sometimes, the stone is too big to pass from the body. In this case, you will need surgery to remove it. Nearly 1 in 10 people can have kidney stones. Some people have no symptoms. Some have very painful symptoms that need emergency care. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) estimates that about 1 million people in the United States get treated for kidney stones each year.  


According to the NIDDK:

  • White people have a higher risk of kidney stones than Black people.

  • Although kidney stones happen more in men, a growing number of women are getting them.

  • Kidney stones most often affect people between age 20 and 40, but they can affect people of any age.

  • If you have had more than one kidney stone, you are more likely to get more.

  • If you have a kidney stone and a family history of stone disease, you are more likely to get more stones.

Doctor Holding Patient's Hand

Types of Kidney Stones 

Understanding the different types of kidney stones is crucial for effective management and prevention. Kidney stones can vary in composition, with the most common types being calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, and struvite stones. Each type has its unique characteristics, causes, and treatments. View below to learn more about the various types of kidney stones and their management.


Calcium Stones

Calcium oxalate, apatite, calcium phosphate or brushite are the most common type of kidney stones. More than 3 out of 4 kidney stones are calcium stones.


Cystine Stones

A rare genetic disorder called cystinuria can cause these stones. Cystinuria causes you to release many amino acids in the urine. This leads to kidney stones.


Uric Acid Stones

These are the second most common type of kidney stones. You cannot see these stones on regular X-rays. You can only see them on a computed tomography (CT) scan or, if they are large, you could see them with an ultrasound. These stones are linked with diet and diabetes.


Struvite Stones

These stones are caused by bacteria from a urinary tract infection.

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